Biafra was declared by the Igbo people, who were the dominant ethnic group in the southeastern region of Nigeria, in response to political, economic, and ethnic tensions with the central Nigerian government.
The name "Biafra" was derived from the Bight of Biafra, a bay on the Atlantic Ocean.
The conflict between Biafra and Nigeria resulted in a devastating civil war that saw massive loss of life and displacement of people.
Despite initial successes, Biafra was ultimately defeated by Nigerian forces in 1970, and the region was reintegrated into Nigeria as part of a peace agreement.
The Biafran War is estimated to have resulted in the deaths of between 1 and 3 million people, mostly from starvation and disease caused by the Nigerian blockade of the region.
The Biafran struggle for secession continues to have a lasting impact on Nigerian politics and society and has influenced other secessionist movements around the world.